My practice focuses on sculptures made of clay and sometimes copper including volumetric shapes with surfaces that explore communication, cognition, and energy. The surfaces include graphic symbols of how we communicate what we believe we know about the world. They draw upon and occasionally cite the writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Patterning includes text in Morse Code, hexagrams, and brain waves for example. The pieces question symmetry, order, meaning and understanding. I am enough of a modernist to believe in principles, enough of a minimalist to believe in forms, and enough of a post-modernist to recognize that these are beliefs rooted in personal histories.